For decades, we have told patients that there were no studies to support that drinking soda made acne worse, although if that was their experience then they should not consume soda. Over the recent years, more and more evidence has emerged showing that diet can affect acne. The first study showed that drinking non-organic milk may exacerbate acne. Recently a study published in the The Journal of Academic Nurtition (J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017 Jun 9. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2017.03.024 ) showed that consuming high-glycemic index carbohydrates is correlated with worsening of acne.
In short, the recommendations have not changed–for all persons, eating a good healthy diet is recommended. What has changed is the evidence showing that poor eating habits is connected with worsening of acne. For all of my patients, acne or not, I recommend avoiding white rice, white potatoes, white flour, and sugar in their diet. Unfortunately, most of my patients, with or without acne, consume a large amount of these high-glycemic index foods, which contributes to obesity, fatigue, and the development of type II diabetes.
It’s funny today. No matter what the condition, everyone thinks that a “laser” is available and is best. In most cases, this is not so, but in many cases, laser treatments are available.
There are many different types and causes of scars: traumatic, post-surgical, and acne scars to name a few. Well, there is not one treatment that is best for all types of scars. So, when it comes to scars, you need to have a lot of tools at your disposal in order to get the best result. For example, here is a list of treatments that I perform regularly for scars:
- CO2 laser ablation
- Dermabrasion (not to be confused with microdermabrasion)
- TCA peels
- IPL (intensed pulsed light)
- Topical treatments (i.e. silicone gel sheets, 5-FU), which can be combined with other treatment modalities
- Surgical scar revision
- Dermal and/or subdermal fillers
What is not on the list:
- Microdermabrasion – studies have shown that there is virtually no benefit unless one reaches the dermis( pinpoint bleeding), at which point it is a dermabrasion and not microdermabrasion. This modality can be combined with chemical peels, which does offer benefit.
- Microneedling – although there may be some benefit, the cost-benefit ratio is poor (high cost for minimal, if any, benefit). This is frequently recommended as there is minimal risk.
In short, the treatment of scars requires experience and skill. More and more frequently, I perform post-operative treatments to reduce the appearance of scars before they fully form (i.e. 10-14 days after facial surgery). But, most scars that are treated are from acne and/or trauma.
Are we doing more harm than good? This has been a question that we have asked for decades regarding the treatment of malignant melanoma. Over the recent decades, margins of normal skin that are removed when treating melanoma have gotten smaller. Recently, the benefit of lymph node dissection to treat involved lymph nodes has come into question and has been recently studied.
According to a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, patients with intermediate-thickness melanomas (1.2- to 3.5mm Breslow’s Depth) who were found to have a positive lymph node with sentinel lymph node biopsy (tumor in the lymph nodes), were not more likely to survive after having a lymph node dissection than not.
While removal of the lymph nodes resulting in better regional disease control, it did not increase melanoma-specific survival rates. In addition, patients whom have had lymph node dissection were more likely to have lymphedema (swelling).
What is clear is that early detection and treatment of melanoma is paramount to having a good outcome. Luckily, most melanomas grow laterally for years before they grow deeper. Increased patient awareness and education has resulted in earlier detection rates in the U.S. Unfortunately, once the tumor has spread, science has been unable to find a therapy that offers a “cure” for most patients. Medical advances have been made and may increase survival rates by 10% and continued research will likely improve upon these rates.
For all patients, early detection is key. Self-examination is recommended for patients. Any new or changing moles should be evaluated by a board-certified Dermatologist. “When in doubt, cut it out”–my slogan which means if there is a question of whether a lesion is melanoma, take a biopsy.
Patients whom have many moles should take photos and evaluate every 3 months for changes. There are several phone apps to assist with this.
According to a recent study, there is great variation from one Mohs’ surgeon to another when having Mohs’ surgery. In this study, they found that the mean number of stages per case was 1.47 (range, 1.09-4.11). The variation in range is huge!!! Thirty-five percent of surgeons were persistent outliers (performed more stages than the mean) in all three years of this study. Physicians in solo practice had a 2.35-times likelihood of a persistent high outlier status (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.25-4.35). Now this does not make sense! Think about it, often the most difficult cases are referred to tertiary care centers (academic institutions), yet they were more likely to clear a patient in fewer stages.
Why the great variation? In an academic center, there are residents and fellows assisting on cases. What does that mean for patients? There is less risk for “funny business”–surgeons intentionally taking smaller pieces so that they they will require more stages (in a fee-for-service model, the surgeon is paid for each stage taken).
In my practice, approximately 80% of patients are cleared within the first stage. This falls well within the mean average of 1.47 average stages per patient. Unfortunately, many surgeons fall outside of this mean. This increases cost, may adversely affect cosmetic outcome, increases surgical time for patients, and may lead to increased patient discomfort as additional anesthetic may be needed.
How do you choose a Mohs’ surgeon? That is a difficult question. According to this study, a Mohs’ surgeon in Private Practice is more likely to perform more layers than is necessary than a surgeon who is a full-time academic surgeon. That being said, I know of great surgeons who are in private practice and many who rarely clear a patient in one stage. In fact, some of the best surgeons are in private practice.
What do I recommend? When choosing a Mohs’ Surgeon, one must be more cautious when choosing one who is in Private Practice. In my over 2 decades of performing Mohs’, I can count on one hand how many patients during the initial consultation have asked me what the likelihood of clearing them on the first stage is.
Medscape (5/19, Doheny) reported, “About a third of sunscreens tested by experts…provide less than half the SPF protection claimed on the label,” according to Consumer Reports’ annual sunscreen report. According to the article, the Food and Drug Administration does not routinely test sunscreen products’ SPF.
Dr. Bader recommends sunscreens that have a high concentration of zinc oxide and/or titanium dioxide as the active ingredient(s). These are physical blockers, that reflect all of the suns rays (UVB and UVA).
Chemical blockers only work for specific wavelengths and break down, often within a few hours of sun exposure.
According to a study published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings, squamous cell carcinoma rates have increased 263% between 2000 and 2010, while basal cell carcinoma increased 145% over the same time period.
Although the reasons for this increase is not yet studied, increased sun exposure and increased tanning bed use are likely contributing factors. Avoidance of midday sun, wearing sun-protective clothing, and the regular use of sunscreen all help to reduce the risk of developing skin cancer.
Topical allergies are common in both children and adults. If one suspects a topical allergy in children, this top 10 list contains the most likely culprits. One can start by avoiding these 10 compounds.
- Tixocortol pivalate (a corticosteroid).
- Propylene glycol (found in many creams, lotions, and solutions).
- Methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI) (a preservative used in anti-fungal and anti-bacterial medications)
- Formaldehyde (found in dental materials, paper products, inks & dyes, & fire-resistant clothing).
- Cocamidopropyl betaine (is known by many other names so one should research all of the possible names; found in many skincare products, including shampoos & conditioners, body washes, and hair dyes; also found in laundry detergents, hand soaps, toothpastes, cleaning products.
- Lanolin (commonly found in lipsticks, cosmetic creams and powders, shaving creams, shampoos, and soaps).
- Benzalkonium chloride (a preservative used in many injectable medications, eye drops, ear drops, and nasal sprays).
- Fragrance and balsam of peru.
- Neomycin (used in over-the-counter antibiotic ointments).
- Nickel (in metals, including costume jewelry and gold that is not 24K).